The map of northern African display most of the part of it covered in Sahara desert. Sahara desert is one of the hottest deserts in the world. The range of this desert includes the Mediterranean in the north, Atlantic, at the east red sea. It has swallowed most of the part of Africa.
This desert has mind blowing facts, some of which are described below
The species of plants
Almost 1200 plant species are found in this hot desert. Green vegetation is stretched in Sahara; this scattered green vegetation includes succulents, herbs, trees, grasses, and shrubs. The best thing about this sparse vegetation is that it is very easily adaptable to heat and the condition of drought.
- Sahara as a fertile farmland
Over 8000 years ago, green leafy crops were grown on the fields of this desert. The presence of glaciers around the northern Europe made this desert fertile by keeping it well watered. So this vast land was once green and fertile. But science says that some chemical and environmental changes took place and changed this lush green land into a desert. The discovery of the cave drawings showed that this desert was once green grassland.
- Some parts of this desert are still fertile
Although it is the driest land of the earth, still the 8000 square miles of this land is covered in green oases. Actually, 2% of this desert is covered in greenery. This land is also being blessed with the ease of irrigation which has helped to keep it fertile. Irrigation has helped to transform this desert near the Nile in Egypt into green land.
- Hottest desert of the world
Sahara is known to be the hottest desert in the world. Nights are generally cold, sometimes the temperature falls to freezing point and below which is the outcome of lack of humidity during summers. But specifically talking about the hot temperature, the hottest recorded temperature of Sahara is 136 degrees F, during 1992 in Libya.
- Population of this desert
There are almost 2 million people living in Sahara presently. It is very difficult for people to survive there with this high temperature and the lack of suitable flora and fauna.
- Animals in Sahara
Some of the most attractive species of animals are found in Sahara. These animals are unique thus cannot be found anywhere in the world.
- Earth’s history
Scientific and geological studies have confirmed that Sahara desert has the capability of shrinking and growing in size.
- Snowcapped peaks of this desert
Another fascinating fact about this desert is that you will find snow-capped peaks during winters. This desert is geographically rocky and underground rivers are also present which often comes out in the form of an oasis. Some peaks are volcanic as well. These peaks are known to be an excellent destination for trekking.
- Less than half sand
The word desert clearly explains that it must contain endless massive banks of sand, yes it is true. But there are many parts of this desert which comprise of the very thin layer of sand and remaining of gravel substrata. Sahara is only 30% sand and 70% gravel
- The biggest desert
You must have studied in your course books that Sahara desert is the largest desert of the earth, but in reality, it is the second largest in an area. The largest desert is Antarctica.